Investigation to Evaluate the Absorption Capacity of HAp During Removal of Copper (II) from Aqueous Solution

Ankit Asthana* , Abhay Kumar Mishra

Journal of Advanced Mechanical Sciences. 2022 Sep 8; 1(3): 93- 101


            Present work illustrates the removal of copper ion (i.e. Cu2+) from water using hydroxyapatite (HAp) adsorbent. HAp powder was synthesized by chemical precipitation method. The developed HAp powders were characterized through FESEM images alongside the EDX analysis confirming the presence of calcium and phosphorous elements. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted mainly using HAP. The copper (II) ion adsorbed HAp was also characterized using, FESEM and EDX analysis. On the basis of the adsorption experimental results a treatment unit/set up has been developed for the purpose of removal of copper from water. The adsorption candle was made by mixing HAP and activated charcoal in a certain proportion. Activated charcoal was used mainly to increase the flow rate of water through the adsorbent candle. Prototypes were developed to investigate the initial copper ion concentration of 3mg/L and 6mg/L. The prototypes thus developed have proven to be successful as more than 1000 litres of copper contaminated water has been treated whilst maintaining the effluent copper concentration well below the permissible limit. 


Hydroxyapatite (HAp), Adsorption, Copper, Fish scale.


[1] F. Fu, Q. Wang. Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters: a review, Journal of environmental management. 92 (2011) 407-418.

[2] S. Dhiraj, G. Mahajan, M. P. Kaur. Agricultural waste material as potential adsorbent for sequestering heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions–A review, Bioresource technology. 99 (2008) 6017-6027.

[3] M. R. Gandhi, G. N. Kousalya, S. Meenakshi. Removal of copper (II) using chitin/chitosan nano-hydroxyapatite composite, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 48 (2011) 119-124.

[4] B. Kiran, K. Thanasekaran. Copper biosorption on Lyngbya putealis: application of response surface methodology (RSM), International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 65 (2011) 840-845.

[5] A. Da̧browski, Z. Hubicki, P. Podkościelny, E. Robens. Selective removal of the heavy metal ions from waters and industrial wastewaters by ion-exchange method, Chemosphere. 56 (2004) 91-106.

[6] G. Varma.V, R. K. Singh, V. Sahu. A comparative study on the removal of heavy metals by adsorption using fly ash and sludge: A review, International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM). 2 (2013) 45-56.

[7] W. Wafwoyo, C. W. Seo, W. E Marshall. Utilization of peanut shells as adsorbents for selected metals, Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology. 74 (1999)1117-1121. [8] S. Doyurumet. A. Çelik. Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal from aqueous solutions by olive cake, Journal of Hazardous Materials. 138 (2006) 22–28.

[9] F. Banat, S. Al-Asheh, D. Al-Rousan. A Comparative Study of Copper and Zinc Ion Adsorption on to Activated and Non-activated Date-pits, Adsorption Science & Technology. 20 (2002) 319-335. [10] E. Malkoc, Y. Nuhoglu. Investigations of nickel(II) removal from aqueous solutions using tea factory waste, Journal of Hazardous Materials. 127 (2005) 120–128.

[11] N.T. Abdel-Ghani, M. Hefny, G.A.F. El-Chaghaby. Removal of lead from aqueous solution using low cost abundantly available adsorbents, International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology. 4 (2007) 67-73.

[12] M. Šćiban, M. Klašnja. Wood sawdust and wood originate materials as adsorbents for heavy metal ions, Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff. 62 (2004) 69–73.

[13] P. Somasundaran, Y. H. C. Wang. Surface chemical characteristics and adsorption properties of apatite, Adsorption on and surface chemistry of hydroxyapatite. Springer US, 1984. pp 129-149.

[14] S. Chander, D. W. FuerstenauSolubility and interfacial properties of hydroxyapatite: a review, Adsorption on and surface chemistry of hydroxyapatite. Springer US, 1984. pp 29- 49. 

[15] S. Takashi, T. Hatsushika, Y. Hayakawa. Synthetic hydroxyapatites employed as inorganic cation-exchangers, Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 1: Physical Chemistry in Condensed Phases. 77 (1981) 1059-1062.

[16] M. Peld, K. Tõnsuaadu, V. Bender. Sorption and desorption of Cd2+ and Zn2+ ions in apatite-aqueous systems, Environmental science & technology. 38 (2004) 5626-5631. [17] M. Prasad, S. Saxena. Sorption mechanism of some divalent metal ions onto low-cost mineral adsorbent, Industrial & engineering chemistry research. 43 (2004) 1512-1522. [18] M. J. Kohn, J. Rakovan, J. M. Hughes. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. 48 (2002) 455-488.

[19] O. S. Amuda, A. A. Giwa, I. A. Bello. Removal of heavy metal from industrial waste water using modified activated coconut shell carbon, Biochemical Engineering journal. 36 (2007) 174-181.

[20] K Kadirvelu, K Thamaraiselvi, C Namasivayam. Removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters by adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from an agricultural solid waste, Bioresource Technology. 76 (2001) 63-65.

[21] M. A. M. Abdallah, M. E. Mahmoud, M. M. Osmanet. New biosorbent in removing some metals from industrial wastewater in El Mex Bay, Egypt Applied Water Science 7 (2017) 1931–1942.

[22] I.L. Balasooriya, J.Chen, S.M. Korale Gedara, Y. Han, M. N. Wickramaratne, Applications of Nano Hydroxyapatite as Adsorbents: A Review, Nanomaterials. 12 (2022) 2324.

[23] Z. Zhu, Y. Yang, Y. Fan, L. Zhang, S. Tang, Y. Zhu, X. Zhou, Strontium-doped hydroxyapatite as an efficient adsorbent for Cd(II) removal from wastewater: Performance, kinetics, and mechanism, Environmental Technology & Innovation. 28, (2022) 102575.

[24] E. Voudrias, , K. Fytianos, and E. Bozani. Sorption–desorption isotherms of dyes from aqueous solutions and wastewaters with different sorbent materials, Global Nest. 4 (2002) 75-83.

[25] S. Mohan, Venkata, J. Karthikeyan./ "Removal of lignin and tannin colour from aqueous solution by adsorption onto activated charcoal, Environmental Pollution. 97 (1997) 183-187.

[26] S. Gokulsai. Studies on Stirling power cycles- A Review, Journal of Advanced Mechanical Sciences. 1 (2022) 47-51.

[27] A. Pratap, B. K. Singh, N. Sardana. Fracture in self-lubricating inserts: A case study, Materials Today: Proceedings. (2022)